European Commission Approves BLINCYTO® (blinatumomab) For Use In Pediatric Patients With Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative Relapsed Or Refractory B-Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Approval Based on Data From the Phase 1/2 ‘205 Study
THOUSAND OAKS, Calif., Aug. 29, 2018 – Amgen (NASDAQ:AMGN) today announced that the European Commission (EC) has approved an expanded indication for BLINCYTO®(blinatumomab) as monotherapy for the treatment of pediatric patients aged one year or older with Philadelphia chromosome-negative CD19 positive B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is refractory or in relapse after receiving at least two prior therapies or in relapse after receiving prior allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The approval is based on results from the Phase 1/2 ‘205 study, an open-label, multicenter, single-arm trial which evaluated the efficacy and safety of BLINCYTO in pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor ALL.
“Historically, children with relapsed or refractory ALL have had limited pharmacologic options beyond chemotherapy, resulting in poor outcomes,” said David M. Reese, M.D., executive vice president of Research and Development at Amgen. “This approval for BLINCYTO provides physicians across Europewith an important new immunotherapy option for these young, heavily pretreated patients, delivering on Amgen’s commitment to making a difference in the lives of cancer patients.”
ALL is a rapidly progressing cancer of the blood and bone marrow that occurs in both adults and children.1,2 In Europe, an estimated 5,000 children are diagnosed with ALL each year.3
BLINCYTO is the first-and-only bispecific T cell engager (BiTE®) immunotherapy construct approved globally. It is also the first immunotherapy from Amgen’s BiTE® platform, an innovative approach that helps the body’s immune system target cancer cells.
Approval via the centralized procedure grants a marketing authorization from the EC, which is valid in all European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA)-European Free Trade Association (EFTA) states (Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein).
About Study ‘205
Study ‘205 evaluated the safety and efficacy of BLINCYTO in a Phase 1/2 open-label, multicenter, single-arm study in 93 pediatric patients with Ph- relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor ALL (second or later bone marrow relapse, any marrow relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [alloHSCT], or refractory to other treatments and had greater than 25 percent blasts in bone marrow). The results were published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
BLINCYTO was administered as a continuous intravenous infusion. The recommended dose for this study was determined to be 5 μg/m2/day on days 1-7 and 15 μg/m2/day on days 8-28 for cycle 1, followed by two weeks off, and 15 μg/m2/day on days 1-28, followed by two weeks off for subsequent cycles. Dose adjustment was possible in case of adverse events. Patients who responded to BLINCYTO, but later relapsed, had the option to be retreated with BLINCYTO.
Among the 70 patients treated at the recommended dosage, the median age was eight years (range: seven months to 17 years), 40 out of 70 (57.1 percent) had undergone alloHSCT prior to receiving BLINCYTO, and 39 out of 70 (55.7 percent) had refractory disease; the mean number of treatment cycles was 1.5. Twenty out of 70 patients (28.6 percent) achieved a complete response or complete response with partial hematologic recovery within two treatment cycles; with 17 of 20 responses (85 percent) occurring within the first cycle. In general, the adverse reactions in BLINCYTO-treated pediatric patients were similar in type to those seen in adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor ALL.
About BLINCYTO® (blinatumomab)
BLINCYTO is a bispecific CD19-directed CD3 T cell engager (BiTE®) immunotherapy that binds to CD19 expressed on the surface of cells of B-lineage origin and CD3 expressed on the surface of effector T cells. BLINCYTO was granted breakthrough therapy and priority review designations by the FDA in 2014, and carries full approval in the U.S. for the treatment of relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor ALL in adults and children. In the U.S., BLINCYTO is also approved under accelerated approval for the treatment of adults and children with B-cell precursor ALL in first or second complete remission with minimal residual disease (MRD) greater than or equal to 0.1 percent.
In 2015, BLINCYTO was approved in the EU for the treatment of adults with Ph- relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor ALL.
About BiTE® Technology
Bispecific T cell engager (BiTE®) antibody constructs are a novel immune-oncology technology that can be engineered to target any tumor antigen expressed by any type of cancer. The modified antibodies are designed to kill malignant cells using the patient’s own immune system by bridging T cells to tumor cells. BiTE® antibody constructs help connect the T cells to the targeted cell, with the intent of causing T cells to inject toxins which trigger cancer cell death (apoptosis). Amgen is developing BiTE® antibody constructs to uniquely (or specifically) target numerous hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.
Important EU BLINCYTO® (blinatumomab) Safety Information
This product is subject to additional monitoring in the EU. All suspected adverse reactions should be reported in accordance with the national reporting system.
BLINCYTO has been evaluated in paediatric patients with relapsed or refractory B-precursor ALL in a phase I/II dose escalation/evaluation study, in which 70 paediatric patients, aged 7 months to 17 years, were treated with the recommended dosage regimen.
The most frequently reported serious adverse events were pyrexia (11.4%), febrile neutropenia (11.4%), cytokine release syndrome (5.7%), sepsis (4.3%), device-related infection (4.3%), overdose (4.3%), convulsion (2.9%), respiratory failure (2.9%), hypoxia (2.9%), pneumonia (2.9%), and multi-organ failure (2.9%).
The adverse reactions in BLINCYTO-treated paediatric patients were similar in type to those seen in adult patients. Adverse reactions that were observed more frequently (≥ 10% difference) in the paediatric population compared to the adult population were anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, pyrexia, infusion-related reactions, weight increase, and hypertension.
The type and frequency of adverse events were similar across different paediatric sub-groups (gender, age, geographic region).
Please refer to the Summary of Product Characteristics for full European prescribing information.
Important Safety Information Regarding BLINCYTO® (blinatumomab) U.S. Indication
WARNING: CYTOKINE RELEASE SYNDROME and NEUROLOGICAL TOXICITIES
- Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS), which may be life-threatening or fatal, occurred in patients receiving BLINCYTO®. Interrupt or discontinue BLINCYTO® as recommended.
- Neurological toxicities, which may be severe, life-threatening or fatal, occurred in patients receiving BLINCYTO®. Interrupt or discontinue BLINCYTO® as recommended.
BLINCYTO® is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to blinatumomab or to any component of the product formulation.
Warnings and Precautions
- Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS): CRS, which may be life-threatening or fatal, occurred in patients receiving BLINCYTO®. The median time to onset of CRS is 2 days after the start of infusion. Closely monitor patients for signs and symptoms of serious adverse events such as fever, headache, nausea, asthenia, hypotension, increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST), increased total bilirubin (TBILI), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The manifestations of CRS after treatment with BLINCYTO overlap with those of infusion reactions, capillary leak syndrome (CLS), and hemophagocytic histiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). In clinical trials of BLINCYTO, CRS was reported in 15% of patients with relapsed or refractory ALL and in 7% of patients with MRD-positive ALL. Interrupt or discontinue BLINCYTO® as outlined in the PI.
- Neurological Toxicities: Approximately 65% of patients receiving BLINCYTO® in clinical trials experienced neurological toxicities. The median time to the first event was within the first 2 weeks of BLINCYTO® treatment and the majority of events resolved. The most common (≥ 10%) manifestations of neurological toxicity were headache and tremor. Severe, life‐threatening, or fatal neurological toxicities occurred in approximately 13% of patients, including encephalopathy, convulsions, speech disorders, disturbances in consciousness, confusion and disorientation, and coordination and balance disorders. Manifestations of neurological toxicity included cranial nerve disorders. Monitor patients for signs or symptoms and interrupt or discontinue BLINCYTO® as outlined in the PI.
- Infections: Approximately 25% of patients receiving BLINCYTO® in clinical trials experienced serious infections such as sepsis, pneumonia, bacteremia, opportunistic infections, and catheter-site infections, some of which were life-threatening or fatal. Administer prophylactic antibiotics and employ surveillance testing as appropriate during treatment. Monitor patients for signs or symptoms of infection and treat appropriately, including interruption or discontinuation of BLINCYTO® as needed.
- Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS), which may be life-threatening or fatal, has been observed. Preventive measures, including pretreatment nontoxic cytoreduction and on-treatment hydration, should be used during BLINCYTO® treatment. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of TLS and interrupt or discontinue BLINCYTO® as needed to manage these events.
- Neutropenia and Febrile Neutropenia, including life-threatening cases, have been observed. Monitor appropriate laboratory parameters (including, but not limited to, white blood cell count and absolute neutrophil count) during BLINCYTO® infusion and interrupt BLINCYTO® if prolonged neutropenia occurs.
- Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: Due to the possibility of neurological events, including seizures, patients receiving BLINCYTO® are at risk for loss of consciousness, and should be advised against driving and engaging in hazardous occupations or activities such as operating heavy or potentially dangerous machinery while BLINCYTO® is being administered.
- Elevated Liver Enzymes: Transient elevations in liver enzymes have been associated with BLINCYTO® treatment with a median time to onset of 3 days. In patients receiving BLINCYTO®, although the majority of these events were observed in the setting of CRS, some cases of elevated liver enzymes were observed outside the setting of CRS, with a median time to onset of 19 days. Grade 3 or greater elevations in liver enzymes occurred in approximately 7% of patients outside the setting of CRS and resulted in treatment discontinuation in less than 1% of patients. Monitor ALT, AST, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and TBILI prior to the start of and during BLINCYTO® treatment. BLINCYTO® treatment should be interrupted if transaminases rise to > 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) or if TBILI rises to > 3 times ULN.
- Pancreatitis: Fatal pancreatitis has been reported in patients receiving BLINCYTO® in combination with dexamethasone in clinical trials and the post-marketing setting. Evaluate patients who develop signs and symptoms of pancreatitis and interrupt or discontinue BLINCYTO® and dexamethasone as needed.
- Leukoencephalopathy: Although the clinical significance is unknown, cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes showing leukoencephalopathy have been observed in patients receiving BLINCYTO®, especially in patients previously treated with cranial irradiation and antileukemic chemotherapy.
- Preparation and administration errors have occurred with BLINCYTO® treatment. Follow instructions for preparation (including admixing) and administration in the PI strictly to minimize medication errors (including underdose and overdose).
- Immunization: Vaccination with live virus vaccines is not recommended for at least 2 weeks prior to the start of BLINCYTO® treatment, during treatment, and until immune recovery following last cycle of BLINCYTO®.
- Risk of Serious Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients due to Benzyl Alcohol Preservative: Serious and fatal adverse reactions including “gasping syndrome,” which is characterized by central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, and gasping respirations, can occur in neonates and infants treated with benzyl alcohol-preserved drugs including BLINCYTO® (with preservative). When prescribing BLINCYTO® (with preservative) for pediatric patients, consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources including BLINCYTO® (with preservative) and other drugs containing benzyl alcohol. The minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which serious adverse reactions may occur is not known. Due to the addition of bacteriostatic saline, 7-day bags of BLINCYTO® solution for infusion with preservative contain benzyl alcohol and are not recommended for use in any patients weighing < 22 kg.
- The most common adverse reactions (≥ 20%) in clinical trial experience of patients with MRD-positive B-cell precursor ALL (BLAST Study) treated with BLINCYTO® were pyrexia, infusion related reactions, headache, infections (pathogen unspecified), tremor, and chills. Serious adverse reactions were reported in 61% of patients. The most common serious adverse reactions (≥ 2%) included pyrexia, tremor, encephalopathy, aphasia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, overdose, device related infection, seizure, and staphylococcal infection.
- The most common adverse reactions (≥ 20%) in clinical trial experience of patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor ALL (TOWER Study) treated with BLINCYTO® were infections (bacterial and pathogen unspecified), pyrexia, headache, infusion-related reactions, anemia, febrile neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. Serious adverse reactions were reported in 62% of patients. The most common serious adverse reactions (≥ 2%) included febrile neutropenia, pyrexia, sepsis, pneumonia, overdose, septic shock, CRS, bacterial sepsis, device related infection, and bacteremia.
- Adverse reactions that were observed more frequently (≥ 10%) in the pediatric population compared to the adult population were pyrexia (80% vs. 61%), hypertension (26% vs. 8%), anemia (41% vs. 24%), infusion-related reaction (49% vs. 34%), thrombocytopenia (34% vs. 21%), leukopenia (24% vs. 11%), and weight increased (17% vs. 6%).
- In pediatric patients less than 2 years old (infants), the incidence of neurologic toxicities was not significantly different than for the other age groups, but its manifestations were different; the only event terms reported were agitation, headache, insomnia, somnolence, and irritability. Infants also had an increased incidence of hypokalemia (50%) compared to other pediatric age cohorts (15-20%) or adults (17%).
Dosage and Administration Guidelines
- BLINCYTO® is administered as a continuous intravenous infusion at a constant flow rate using an infusion pump which should be programmable, lockable, non-elastomeric, and have an alarm.
- It is very important that the instructions for preparation (including admixing) and administration provided in the full Prescribing Information are strictly followed to minimize medication errors (including underdose and overdose).
Please see full Prescribing Information, including Boxed WARNINGS and Medication Guide, for BLINCYTO®.
About Amgen’s Commitment to Oncology
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- Conter V, et al. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Orphanet Encyclopedia. http://www.orpha.net/data/patho/GB/uk-ALL.pdf. Accessed Jan. 30, 2018.